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What is MLA Referencing?

An inherent part of modern literature – Modern Language Associations

What is MLA referencing?

This is a style that is used to write papers and cite sources within liberal arts and humanities in the present day. All fields of literature agree on the need to document scholarly borrowings but documentation conventions vary because of the different needs for scholarly disciplines. MLA referencing is one such style or discipline, which is widely used, as it is generally simpler and more concise than other styles. It features parenthetical citations in the text keyed to an alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of the work. This citation style has undergone significant changes with the every new edition.

This style has been widely adopted by schools, academic departments and instructors all over the world. Their guidelines are used by over 1,100 journals, newsletter, magazines, university and commercial press. They are mainly followed throughout North America, Brazil, China, India, Japan, Taiwan and such other places. The MLA association publishes two authoritative explanations of MLA style : the MLA Handbook for writers of Research papers and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. It describes how easy is it to use and interpret this style even for users unfamiliar with nuances of scholarly discourse. When no style is specified, it becomes a good general style to use. The style has two meanings expression and presentation.

The types and styles of MLA references –

There are three basic styles of references that is author date, bibliography and note, in the form of endnotes and footnotes. It uses the bibliography style with text citations in the author-page format. The references and citations must also correspond that is everything cited in the text must be referenced, and the only works cited are included in the reference list. MLA style places the reference list under the heading Works Cited to offer a reminder to this correspondence. The references are composed of elements like –

Authors – the Works Cited are organized according to the authors. Therefore the lead author’s name goes last name first and the other author’s names follow the order with the conventional usage of conjunctions and punctuations.

Titles (as parts) – articles and chapters are parts of works and volumes and its titles are capitalized and placed in quotes.

Tiles (as volumes) – the titles or the names of books or journals are underlined or placed in italics other than being capitalized.

Publication information (for books) – MLA style introduces the publisher of the volume, by giving the name of the publisher and the place of the publication, followed by the year.

Publication information (for periodicals) – no publisher is given for journals or periodicals, just the name of the journal is sufficient, this however is followed by the volume (date): page.

Internet access – the dates the sources are accessed are followed by URL in brackets.

Example : Watts, Alan. “The Art of Contemplation.” Cloud-Hidden, Whereabouts Unknown: A Mountain Journal. New York: Vintage Books, 1974. 179-96. Print.

All this together assist in the coursework writing service to any institution.

The MLA style includes certain rules these are –

Using the international format (day month year) that is full dates by abbreviating the month.

Every word in a title is capitalized except for articles, conjunctions and prepositions. The capitalization is generally used for headings and subheadings.

Punctuation is important.

The names and titles are underlined or written in italics.

Journals are published in volumes thus the references to these journals note the number in the volume form : volume: number.

The general points for using references –

Points for in-text references are –

  • if the author’s name is mentioned in the sentence it is enough to cite just the page number.
  • Font and capitalization must match the reference list.
  • Long quotations should be indented
  • If one is searching for more than one reference within the same point in a document the references should be separated with a semicolon.
  • The works with no author must be referred by the title.
  • If one is citing for two works by the same author, a comma must be added after the author’s name with the title words to distinguish between them in the in-text citation.
  • Two authors with the same surname must be referred by the initials.

The general points to be listed for reference listing –

  • The heading for reference list is Work Cited which should be focused on.
  • The reference should be formatted with double spacing and a hanging indent
  •  All significant words of the title and subtitles should be capitalized
  • The author’s names should be listed with forenames if known
  • The name of the first author is inverted to the list of the family name; additional authors are not inverted to the list.
  • If one cites for more than one author, the names must be given in the first entry only. Thereafter hyphens are used instead of the names.
  • If a reference does not have an author, it is cited by the title.

How are the references and pages composed?

The references to various sources are composed in block formats. As for the book the format that is used is –

Author, First Middle. The Title of the Book or Volume. Xth ed. Trans. First M. Last. City:Publisher, 2006. Print.

The MLA style also uses abbreviations in references, even devotes a chapter to the topic.

This style also includes the name of the medium of publication in every reference, that is the source of the Print document or web page, PDF file, audiocassette, videocassette, tweet etc

There are three basic differences in the page format of the MLA handbooks – it does not allow the use of headings and sub headings in papers, it requires everything to be double spaced when block paragraph spacing for block quotes, headings and references, block quotes require a double intent, intended a full inch instead half from the left margin.

These are few of the features of the MLA references used by an academic writing.

What is Oxford Referencing?

The best and the most premier online reference product solving paperwork worldwide!

While submitting a project, thesis or any academic work we are always asked to provide a reference for our ideas. This might seem a burden but is essential in many respects. One shall never fail to acknowledge the people’s ideas. Also, the reader of the particular thesis submitted will be able to locate the cited references easily and also evaluate the interpretation of the ideas. This is a genuine proof of avoiding plagiarism and will also show an evidence of the breadth and depth of one’s reading.

Oxford Reference is a similar online savior for the students bringing together almost 2 million digitized entries spanning across oxford dictionaries, companions and encyclopedias.

How does this feature function?

As we browse through Oxford reference for assignment help we may find results that range from short entry general reference to more in-depth articles on specialized subjects. The oxford referencing style is a note citation system, and is sometimes referred to as a documentary note style. It has two components.

Footnote citation and Reference list

Footnote citation – for this method a superscript number is inserted in the text at a point where one shall cite the source of information. The superscript number than appears at the bottom of the page where the footnote is recorded.

  • Then one required to state the authors the author’s name or initials before the surname. This is followed by citing a single page reference or more as p. 3 or pp. 3-6 respectively.
  • Ibid. is used to indicate that the previous reference page has been used again. If one refers to the same work again in the footnotes, it is important to use the author’s surname and the page number for subsequent references.
  • Acknowledgment must be given to both direct and indirect quotations. Footnotes are also used to acknowledge the information, ideas and interpretations, even when they are just described. Direct quotations must be enclosed within single quotation marks.

Example of Footnotes – “R.P. Winnington-Ingram, Mode of Ancient Greek Music, London, Cambridge University Press, 1936, p. vii “

Reference list – the complete details for each citation or reference is listed at the end of an essay or assignment.

  • All references are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s surname. If one has included works by the same author, it should be arranged according to the dates.
  • The names should be written only using the initials with no full stops or spaces.
  • On citing a journal article, the full page numbers of the article should be used p.165-217
  • The display or format of the reference depends on the type of reference one is citing.
  • In footnote the author’s name or initials precede the surname while in reference list the surname comes first – P.Grimshaw and Grimshaw.P respectively.
  • The reference list entries for books does not include page numbers.
  • One must check the reference format tabs, for a full list of reference examples.

Example of Reference lists – Mintz, S.,’Food Enigmas, Colonial and Post Colonial’, Gastronomia, Vol. 10, no.1, 2010, p. 149.

The types of Oxford References available

  • Oxford Quick Reference – this is a core foundation of 135+ subjects, languages and quotations dictionaries providing carefully analyzed short entry content used for coursework help.

This program is updated monthly by Oxford’s experienced reference staff, external academic advisors based on user feedbacks. They check and revise articles for top-level accuracy. There are three major content releases a year, which adds titles and editions and they are made available to individuals and institutions all over the world via an annual subscription. This is best used for checking a fact, finding a key or information on a person, concept or term.

  • Oxford Reference Library – this foundation consists of 200+ specialized titles from Oxford’s award winning Encyclopedias and companions and selection of partner publisher’s works.

They are published in print and new titles and editions are added throughout the year. Institutions can build and customize their collections with the subjects they need by title-by-title purchase. It includes Oxford’s most popular and visited titles like The Grove Dictionary of American Music, 2nd Edition and Oxford Classical Dictionary, 4th Edition.

  • Oxford Reference also comes in a Premium Package mainly for Institutions, which provide both quick fast checking and deeper research.

All the 25 core subjects required for essays and academic research are represented across hundreds of titles, and it includes all the updating and exclusive content provided by Oxford Quick Reference Collection, with critical selection of Oxford’s specialized titles.

The researching experience with Oxford Reference

Functionality –

Tool library widget – after logging into Oxford reference one can select whether to see the results from the Reference list or full texts available via the library.

Annotation functionality – one can select text to highlight with own notes, and after signing in to the personal profile annotations can be stored and managed under ‘my work’.

Oxford Dictionaries widget allows one to see the definitions in Oxford Dictionaries online.

Oxford Index Underbar – this is a tool at the bottom of the browser which offers free search and discovery by generating links related to the content from Oxford’s online resources.

Flexible User Experience –

One can narrow down the search with a multitude of subjects or reference type filters by selecting ‘book’ or ‘entry’ to see the results displayed in the preferred format.

Research can be customized by saving the research journey, titles and entries. Content can even be shared via social bookmarking and email.

There are few research tools that can be used by the ones who haven’t subscribed as well. These include overview pages, timelines, quotations and featured articles by contributors.

What are the examples of featured articles included in Oxford Referencing?

The Normans at Our Table: John Ayto – explores the extent to which Normans have influenced the 21st vocabulary focusing on gastronomic and culinary terminology.

Outlooks on Life: Susan Radcliff – takes a look at the outlook of life at the start of New Year, etc.